加入收藏  |  设为首页   | 初级搜刮
·后抗生素时期的领航者/专访佰高威衰中国区手艺总监席祖义 ·译稿|现在能够用于养猪消费的节水手艺 ·译稿|养猪消费中的饮水形式 ·高岩|浅谈猪舍浑粪工艺 ·什么样的消费状态必需选择运用希特力?
 华康价值观 |  华康任务 |  华康愿景 |
 家禽产物 |  猪系列产品 |
 技术资料 |  华康静态 |  行业动态 |
金沙城中心
当前位置: 主页 > 4066.com > 技术资料 > 技术资料

α-单月桂酸甘油酯(希特力)的抗炎特性

工夫:2019-04-08 11:02泉源:未知 作者:admin 点击: 次金沙国际线上赌城



 
introduction
简介
 

Researchers are continuously investigating what the limiting factors are for our production animals to reach 100% of their genetic growth potential. Farm management, climate conditions and nutrition are all important factors. However, it became clear that the immunological processes, and more particularly inflammation, can be a high cost for animal growth as well. Hence, if we are able to reduce this negative impact of pro-inflammatory processes by supplying anti-inflammatory compounds, we are one step closer to achieve 100% of the genetic growth potential of livestock.

研究人员正在络续研究生产植物到达其遗传发展潜力最大化的限定身分。农场管理,天气前提和营养都是主要身分。但是,很明显,免疫历程,尤其是炎症,对植物发展也是很下的一个本钱。因而,若是我们可以或许经由过程供应抗炎化合物去削减促炎历程的负面影响,我们间隔实现100%的六畜遗传发展潜力更远了一步。

 

Inflammation is defined as a reaction of tissue to any harmful stimulus. This stimulus can either be of physical, chemical or immunological origin, but can also be caused by microorganisms like bacteria, parasites, and viruses. As the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the largest immune organ of the body and the place where 70% of the immune cells are located, these harmful stimuli will often result in the activation of the gastrointestinal immune (GI) system. Hence, specialized cells start to do their job, especially by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Cytokines are polypeptides produced mainly by monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes and regulate the intensity and duration of an immune response.

炎症界说为构造对任何有害刺激的回响反映。这类刺激能够是物理的,化学的或免疫的,但也能够由细菌,寄生虫和病毒等微生物引发。因为胃肠道(GIT)是身材的最大免疫器官和70%免疫细胞地点的位置,这些有害刺激一般会致使胃肠道免疫(GI)体系的激活。因而,特化细胞最先发挥作用,特别是经由过程发生促炎细胞因子(比方白细胞介素-6(IL-6))。细胞因子是重要由单核细胞,巨噬细胞和淋巴细胞发生的多肽,并调治免疫应对的强度和持续时间。

 

It is known that even mild immune challenges already induce a reduction in feed intake and consequently can have a negative impact on growth. In addition, the immune cells require nutrients and energy to perform their function. There is also an increased protein demand during inflammation, because the production of acute-phase proteins and antibodies requires protein. Processes as lipolysis, proteolysis and glycolysis (degradation of fat, protein and glucose respectively) will provide the required nutrients and energy for the induced immune response. However, due to the reduced feed intake, body reserves may be used to release the required nutrients and energy. In case of a severe or prolonged infection this will result in a clear loss of body weight. In humans, for instance, a severe infection can lead to a loss in body weight of 15-30%.

尽人皆知,纵然细微的免疫应战引诱了采食量的削减,因而能够对发展发生负面影响。另外,免疫细胞需求营养和能量去施展其功用。炎症时期蛋白质需求也增添,由于急性期蛋白质和抗体的发生需求蛋白质。脂解,卵白水解和糖酵解(离别降解脂肪,蛋白质和葡萄糖)的历程将为引诱的免疫应对供应所需的营养和能量。但是,因为采食量削减,身材贮备可用于开释所需的营养和能量。在严峻或临时熏染的状况下,那将致使显着的体重减轻。 比方,在人类中,严峻熏染可致使体重减轻15-30%。

 

It is important to remember that the GI immune system should be activated in case of high pathogenic pressure, but we should avoid that the immune system over-reacts when small challenges occur. If we can manage to reduce the negative impact of pro-inflammatory processes by supplying anti-inflammatory compounds, we are one step closer to achieve 100% of the genetic growth potential of an animal. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro trial was to study whether a-monoglycerides have anti-inflammatory properties.

主要的是要记着,在下致病性压力的状况下应当激活GI免疫系统,但我们应当制止免疫系统在发作小的应战时过分回响反映。若是我们可以或许经由过程供应抗炎化合物去削减促炎历程的负面影响,我们间隔实现100%的植物遗传发展潜力更远了一步。因而,该体外实验的目标是研讨FraC12可具有抗炎特性。

 
Materials and Methods
(质料和要领)
 
 

At the laboratory of Prof. Niewold at KU Leuven in Belgium, an in vitro model was used to study the potential anti-inflammatory effects of several compounds. In this model, macrophage-like cells were used and were challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from E. coli. Upon this challenge, the macrophage-like cells produced Nitric Oxide (NO). When the selected compound can reduce NO production, it means that the compound has anti-inflammatory properties.

金沙国际线上赌城

在比利时鲁汶大学的Niewold传授的实验室中,运用体外模子研讨了几种化合物的潜伏抗炎感化。在该模子中,运用来自大肠杆菌的脂多糖(LPS)进击巨噬细胞样细胞。在此次进击后,巨噬细胞样细胞发生一氧化氮(NO)。当所选化合物能够削减NO发生时,那意味着该化合物具有抗炎特性。

 

The Raw 264.7 macrophage-like cells were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Then 50 μl/well of serially diluted oxytetracycline dihydrate (OTC) (control group) and serially diluted extracts (a-mono-, di- and triglycerides of lauric acid; a-monolaurin; a-mono-, di- and triglycerides of caprylic acid (C8)/ capric acid (C10); and a-mono-, di- and triglycerides of pelargonic acid (C9)) were added and incubated for 4 hours at 37°C. Subsequently, 50 μl medium containing LPS from E. coli (50 ng LPS/ml) was added, giving a final concentration of 12.5 ng LPS/ml, and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. Then, 100 μl of medium was taken, and pipetted into another 96 wells plate. Quantification of NO production was performed with Griess reagent using a serial dilution of NaNO2 as a standard. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was calculated using the sigmoidal dose response (variable slope) method, using GraphPad Prism 5 for Windows. The inhibitory concentration 50 indicates from which dose level onwards an anti-inflammatory effect was observed. All samples were tested in duplicate.

将Raw 264.7巨噬细胞样细胞在37℃温育24小时。然后50μl/孔去一连稀释的土霉素二水合物(OTC)(对比组)和一连稀释的提取物(月桂酸的a-单,二和甘油三酯;α-单月桂酸甘油酯;酸楚(C8)/癸酸(C10)的a-单,二和甘油三酯; 壬酸(C9)的a-单,二和甘油三酯)并在37℃下温育4小时。随后,到场含有来自大肠杆菌的LPS(50ng LPS / ml)的50μl培养基,获得12.5ng LPS / ml的末浓度,并在37℃温育24小时。然后,掏出100μl培养基,并移液到另一个96孔板中。运用一连稀释的NaNO2作为尺度,用Griess试剂停止NO发生的定量。抑止浓度50 (IC50)接纳s形剂量相应(变斜率)法,用GraphPad Prism 5去剖析。抑止浓度50注解从哪个剂量程度最先观察到抗炎感化。所有样品一式两份停止测试。

 

Results
效果 
 

 

The model is based on the reduction of production of NO by macrophages. Nitric Oxide is an intercellular messenger that has been recognized as one of the most versatile players in the immune system. Cells of the innate immune system, like macrophages, use pattern recognition receptors to recognize the molecular patterns associated with pathogens. Activated macrophages then inhibit pathogen replication by releasing a variety of effector molecules, including NO. In addition to macrophages, many other immune-system cells produce and respond to NO. Thus, NO is important as a toxic defense molecule against infectious organisms. (Tripathi et al., 2007) 

该模子基于巨噬细胞削减NO的发生。NO是一种细胞间信使,已被公认为免疫系统中最通用的参与者之一。天赋免疫系统的细胞,如巨噬细胞,运用模式识别受体去辨认取病原体相干的份子形式。然后,活化的巨噬细胞经由过程开释多种效应份子(包孕NO)去抑止病原体复制。除巨噬细胞,很多其他免疫系统细胞发生并相应NO。因而,NO作为针对传染性生物的毒性防备份子是主要的。(Tripathi等,2007)

 

Even though NO has some anti-bacterial activity, it can have a negative effect on the intestinal bacterial diversity as well. Nitric oxide is rapidly transformed to nitrate in the lumen. A nitrate rich environment is beneficial for strains like E. coli, but non-favorable for the obligate anaerobic bacteria like Clostridia and Bacteriodia. Hence, the balance between the good (Clostridia and Bacteriodia species) and the bad bacteria (E. coli) is disturbed. In addition, inflammation increases the oxygen level in the lumen, which also results in a reduction of the obligate anaerobic bacteria and consequently an increased loss of bacterial diversity. (Gresse et al., 2017)

纵然NO具有一些抗菌活性,它也会对肠道细菌多样性发生负面影响。一氧化氮在腔中敏捷转化为硝酸盐。富含硝酸盐的情况对大肠杆菌等菌株无益,但对梭状芽孢杆菌和Bacteriodia等专性厌氧菌晦气。因而,优越(梭状芽孢杆菌和细菌)和坏细菌(大肠杆菌)之间的均衡遭到滋扰。另外,炎症增添了腔中的氧程度,那也致使专性厌氧细菌的削减,并因而致使细菌多样性的丧失增添。(Gresse等,2017)

 

Increasing evidence indicates that NO also plays a part in acute and chronic inflammation. Inhibiting NO synthase (NOS), the enzymes that convert L-arginine to NO, reduced the degree of inflammation in rats with acute inflammation. This indicates that it is important to modulate NO production. Hence, the aim of this in vitro study was to study whether different types of glycerides were able to reduce NO production. If NO production is reduced, we can assume that the molecule has anti-inflammatory properties.

愈来愈多的证据注解NO也在急性和慢性炎症中起作用。抑止NO分解酶(NOS),行将L-精氨酸转化为NO的酶,低落了急性炎症大鼠的炎症水平。 那注解调治NO发生很重要。因而,该体外研讨的目标是研讨不同类型的甘油酯是不是可以或许削减NO发生。若是NO产量削减,我们能够假定该份子具有抗炎特性。

 

Figure 1 shows the effect of pure a-monolaurin, a-mono-, di- and triglycerides of C12 and OTC on NO production by LPS challenged macrophage-like cells.

图1显现了纯的a-单月桂酸甘油酯,C12的a-单,二和甘油三酯和OTC对脂多糖(LPS)引发的的巨噬细胞样细胞发生NO的影响。


 

 

Figure 1. Effect of α-monolaurin, a-mono-, di- and triglycerides of C12, and OTC on Nitric Oxide (NO) production induced by LPS challenge.

图1. a-单月桂酸甘油酯,月桂酸的a-单,二和甘油三酯和OTC对脂多糖LPS引发引诱的一氧化氮(NO)发生的影响。

 

In this study OTC was used as a control group and clearly showed the expected reduction in NO production at an IC50 of 400 ppm. Alpha-monolaurin also showed a clear reduction in NO production, but already at IC50 of 200 ppm. Surprisingly, there was no difference in IC50 level between the combination of mono-, di-and triglycerides of lauric acid containing approximately 40% α-monolaurin and the sample containing 90% a-monolaurin.

在该研讨中,OTC作为对比组,并清晰天显现预期的NO发生削减在400ppm的IC50削减。α-月桂酸甘油酯也显现出NO发生的显着削减,但曾经到达200ppm 的IC50。使人惊奇的是,在a-单,二和甘油三酯组合的样品含量约为40%的α-单月桂酸甘油酯和含有90%单月桂酸甘油酯的之间的IC50程度没有差别。

 

The combination of a-mono-, di- and triglycerides of C8/C10 showed intermediate results with an IC50 of 800 ppm. Alpha-mono-, di- and triglycerides of C9 also proved to have anti-inflammatory properties at an IC50 of 1000 ppm (Figure 2).

C8 / C10的a-单,二和甘油三酯组合显现中央效果,IC50为800ppm。C9的a-单,二和甘油三酯组合在IC50为1000ppm也被证实具有抗炎特性,(图2)


 

 
Conclusions
结论
 

The GI immune system should be activated in case of high pathogenic pressure, but over-reaction of the immune system should be avoided when only small challenges occur. If we are able to reduce negative impact of pro-inflammatory processes by supplying anti-inflammatory compounds, we are one step closer to achieve 100% of the genetic growth potential of an animal. From this in vitro trial, it became clear that glycerides of C8/C10, C9 and C12 have anti-inflammatory properties next to their anti-microbial effects. This gives us more insight in the mode of action of a-monoglycerides. Moreover, it gives us extra information why a-monoglycerides stimulate animal growth and performance in case of low pathogenic pressure.

在下致病性压力的状况下应当激活GI免疫系统,然则当仅发作小的应战时应当制止免疫系统的过分回响反映。若是我们可以或许经由过程供应抗炎化合物去削减促炎历程的负面影响,我们间隔实现100%的植物遗传发展潜力更远一步。从该体外实验中能够清晰天看出,C8 / C10,C9和C12的甘油酯除具有抗微生物感化中,借具有抗炎特性。那使我们越发相识FraC12的感化体式格局。 另外,它为我们供应了分外的信息,为何FraC12会在低致病压力的状况下刺激植物的发展和显示。

 

泉源:荷兰FRAmelco/佰高威衰公司

 

金沙城中心

(责任编辑:admin)
------分开线---------------------------- 金沙城中心
推荐内容
4066.com